Page 63 - Wire Rope News & Sling Technology - October2019
P. 63

continued  from  page  10
 right  off  the  bat  not  to  do  that.  I  just
 he has kept to this day, which has
 played the game. I ate, drank, and
 allowed him to become a successful
 partied  when  the  hosts  suggested  it.  I
 importer from the very start of his
 never  said  no.  I  was  astute  with  chop
 business. He typically drop ships
 stick,  learned  how  to  toast  directly,  and
 container  loads  to those  suppliers  in
 acted  with  all  the  proper  manners. I
 North  America  and  Europe  who  don’t
 made  a  point  to  learn  all  these  things.
 have these contacts which Cushman
 My hosts often said I must have an
 has  built  up  over  the  years.
 oriental wife. For this reason I was
 Is becoming a successful importer
 accepted much quicker  than I  might
 simply  a  matter  of  traveling  to  a  foreign
 have  been  otherwise.”
 company  and  placing  an  order?  Hardly.
 In  a  typical  day  one  supplier  would
 To get good deals and build loyalty
 take  him  to  breakfast  and  then  on  a
 takes  not  only  business  savvy  but  also
 factory  tour.  Then  he  would  be  handed
 considerable cultural acumen.
 off to another supplier and go on
 Cushman  got  his  start  in  learning  how
 another  tour.  Back  at  the  hotel  he  had  a
 to  relate  to  businessmen  from  different
 half  hour  to  clean  up  and  then  it  was  off
 cultures when they would visit this
 to  a  dinner  and  party  which  would  last
 country  and  he  would  meet  them  in  the
 until  midnight.  Cushman  traveled  for
 hope  of  picking  up  new  vendors.  “We
 about 12 years. Normally he would
 would  hang  out  together  and  we  would
 embark  every  nine  months  for  two  to
 always go out in the evening,”
 three  weeks.  “The  hardest  was  when  I
 Cushman  recalls.  “I  soon  learned  that
 had  23  flights  in  22  days,”he  recalls.
 Koreans, Chinese, and others from
 Cushman had many interesting
 oriental  countries  did  not  like  steak  or
 experiences on his travels. “My first
 hamburgers.  I  would  take  them  to  the
 experience  in  mainland  China  in  the
 best ethnic restaurant representing
                           company’s  116'  long  test  bed.
 1980s  was  like  going  back  200  years,  he
 their  culture.  I  still  do  that  today.”
                           world for two weeks. No one knew
 recalls.  “There  was  no  infrastructure,
 When Cushman began visiting
                           where  I  was. My family was  a  little
 no  transportation  systems,  and  limited
 foreign countries, he knew how to
                           concerned.  My  wife  said  never  do  that
 accomodations.  On  my  second  trip  to
 behave.  “A  lot  of  people  don’t  believe  in
                                          continued  on  page  16
 China  I  was  cut  off  from  the  outside
 mixing  in  and  think  it’s  best  to  remain   a  little  aloof,”  Cushman  says.  “I  learned   1-3/4"  boom  pendants  being  tested  on  the
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 12      disclosure. The first alloy, BiAg does not characteristically
                     Wire  Rope  News  &  Sling  Technology          August  2006
         display good wetting on commonly-used surface finish ma-
         terials because of poor reaction chemistry between Bi and
         the surface finish materials. More specifically, as a result,
         the Bi–Ag alloy alone would not be sufficient to be used as
         proper solder material for bonding purposes.
           However, including a second alloy Sn, may have great ad-
         vantages. For example, Sn may be chosen for its superior
         reaction chemistries over Bi with various substrates. Sn and
         Bi exhibit a negative mixing enthalpy and form a eutectic
         phase in a wide composition range, according to the bina-
         ry phase diagram. Sb and Bi also have a negative mixing
         enthalpy and finite solubility to each other. During reflow,
         Sn first forms a Sn-containing IMC layer on the substrate   Figure 9: Cross-structure view of a core-shell wire.
         surface and when the temperature then reaches above the
                                                              melting temperature of BiAg, all the present alloys are then
                                                              melted. As such, the good affinity between Bi and Sn guar-
                                                              antees good adhesion of the molten Bi on the Sn-containing
                                                              IMC layer. Additionally, the existence of Ag in the first alloy
                                                              can convert any extra Sn in Ag3Sn IMCs residing in the sol-
                                                              der body. Therefore, there is minimal or no low melting BiSn
                                                              phase left  because  Sn  is  completely consumed  by forming
                                                              the IMC layer between the solder and the metal substrate
                                                              and Ag3Sn inside the BiAg solder bump.
                                                               Figure 8 illustrates a microstructural view of a core-shell
                                                              solder wire 200 with a core wire 210 composed of a first alloy
                                                              BiAg and a shell coating layer 205 composed of a second al-
                                                              loy Bi–42Sn, in accordance with certain aspects of the pres-
                                                              ent disclosure. In one particular embodiment, as illustrated,
                                                              the shell coating layer 205 may have an average thickness
                                                              of approximately 45 microns. Additionally, figure 8 further
         Figure 8: Microstructural view of a core-shell solder wire with a core wire.          continued on next page
                                                              Wire Rope News & Sling Technology   October 2019  63
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