Page 14 - Wire Rope News & Sling Technology - February 2019
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continued from page 12
         terial  into  objects  are  gaining  use
         for  plastic  parts,  decorative  items,
         concrete structural components for
         the  construction  industry,  and  steel
         hooks for cranes. They are:
           1. VAT Photopolymerization – photo-
         polymer resin, layer by layer.
           2. Material Jetting – material jetting
         sprayed to create objects.
           3. Binder Jetting – binding process
         uses two materials.
           4. Material Extrusion – fuse deposi-
         tion material extrusion process.
           5. Powder Bed Fusion – layering
         powder and fusion of each layer build-  Fig. 8. Tool made from metal powder using the process of additive manufacturing.
         up (fig. 8).                       Photo © Marina Skoropadskaya | iStockphoto
           6. Sheet Lamination – ultrasonic lam-
         ination process buildup, popular now.  metal on a bed. Then, using a laser, it   have  “confidence”  in  this  hook  using
           7. Directed Energy Deposition – plas-  welds the powder into a solid layer of   Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) or
         ma or arc welding & wire feed additive.  material on the bed. And then another   Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) power source
           Who would have thought the process   layer is applied  over that  layer. The   methods? This  latest technique  has
         of spraying plastic in 1981 would evolve   process is repeated  until the object is   replaced some casting/machining  of
         to plasma welding  of hooks  in  2018?   completed.  There is a possible risk of   other products, including  ship propel-
         These welding methods have ushered   the material not being fully fused dur-  lers. The choice seems clear, compared
         in  a  new  era  in  additive manufactur-  ing this “power” process, which makes   to the traditional method of casting
         ing. Yes, it took about three decades –   for quality assurance concerns.   propellers, where up to 70% of the ma-
         without the internet.                The Direct Energy Deposition of met-  terial is removed to form the item - a
           By volume, due to the types of prod-  al method  to form 3D shapes, which   huge material cost.
         ucts, the Powder Bed  Fusion method   aims a plasma beam or laser to achieve   Plasma is one of the four funda-
         is the leader. The method starts by   desired fusing results,  is what moti-  mental states of matter  (plasma, gas,
         spreading a thin layer of powdered   vated this article. Can we or should we           continued on page 16

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