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continued from page 8
         ally describe the vertical flight he had
         envisioned. Steam power of course re-
         mained popular with  other  inventors
         for some time.
           In 1878 the Italian Enrico Forlanini
         came up with an unmanned vehicle, also
         powered by a steam engine, and rose
         to a height of 12 meters (40 ft), where
         it hovered for some 20 seconds after a
         vertical take-off. Emmanuel Dieuaide’s
         steam-powered design  featured coun-
         ter-rotating  rotors  powered  through
         a hose from a boiler on the ground. In
         1887, another inventor, Parisian Gus-
         tave Trouve constructed and flew a teth-
         ered electric model helicopter.
           Over  the  decades  of  the  19th  cen-
         tury  and  those  of  the  first  half  of  the
         20th century as well, aviation inventors
         from France, the Netherland, Germany,






















         Longline slinging concrete to  infrastructure
         site. Photo Credit: Duncan McDonald
         the United States – including Thomas
         Edison – Italy, Argentina, Soviet Union/
         Russia, Denmark, and Spain, all con-
         tributed to the effort of making vertical
         flight a success. Igor Sikorsky and the
         world’s  first  mass-produced  helicopter,
         the Sikorsky R-4, in 1944.
           This  also  eventually  led  to  the  first   A Chinoock Helicopter MK2/2A carrying out operations in Cyprus during the Wader Amphibi-
         helicopter airmail service in Los Ange-  ous Exercise. Carrying a Lynx Helicopter back to HMS Ocean for some essential maintenance.
         les, 1947. Amidst all the many designs   © Crown Copyright 2003
         which appeared, Sikorsky settled on a
         simpler,  single  rotor  design,  the  VS-  with  rough  terrain.  Total production   into  the  Bell  47,  the  first  helicopter
         300,  which  turned  out  to  be  the  first   reached 131 helicopters before the R-4   certified for civilian use in the United
         practical single lifting-rotor helicopter   was replaced by other Sikorsky helicop-  States. Produced in several countries,
         design. After experimenting with con-  ters such as the R-5 and R-6. Sikorsky   the Bell 47 was the most popular he-
         figurations  to  counteract  the  torque   produced over  400 helicopters  before   licopter model for just about 30 years.
         produced by the single  main rotor,   the end of World War II.          Ensuing  years  saw  development of
         Sikorsky  settled on  a single,  smaller   While LePage and Sikorsky  built   twin rotor copters, turboshaft engines,
         rotor mounted on the tailboom.     their helicopters for the military, Bell   and much  more  reliable  helicopters.
           Developed  from the VS-300,  Sikor-  Aircraft brought on Arthur Young in   These  were  capable of  stable  hover
         sky’s  R-4  was  the  first  large-scale   an effort to construct a helicopter using   flight,  formulated  decades  after  fixed-
         mass-produced helicopter, with a pro-  Young’s two-blade teetering rotor de-  wing  aircraft. This  is largely due to
         duction order for 100 aircraft. The R-4   sign, which also employed a weighted   higher engine power density require-
         was the only Allied helicopter to serve   stabilizer bar at a 90° angle to the rotor   ments  than  fixed-wing  aircraft.  Im-
         in World War II, when it was used pri-  blades. The future Model 30 helicopter   provements in fuels and engines dur-
         marily for search and rescue in Burma   showed the design’s simplicity and ease   ing  the  first  half  of  the  20th  century
         and in Alaska as well as other areas   of use.  The Model 30 was developed   were a critical factor in helicopter de-
                                                                                                continued on page 12
         10     Wire Rope News & Sling Technology   August 2017
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